Muhammad Ali Jinnah born on 25th December 1876 at Wazir Mansion Karachi. His father’s name was Ponja Jinnah. He got admission in Sindh Madrissah High School in 1887 and got admitted in Mission High School from where he passed matriculation. His father on the advice of his friend and business partner Sir Fredrick Lee Craft wished to send him to England to get business experience. But Jinnah was interested to become a barrister.
Jinnah in England
As per traditions of that period, at the early age, Jinnah got married before proceeding to England. His mother and wife passed away while he was in England but he continued his study. He visited British House of Common many a time and got knowledge of British Political System. Jinnah took a special interest in the affairs of Indian students. Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his companions played a key role in the success of a Parsi leader Dada Bhai Naroji, who was an Indian national, to become the first Indian member of the British House of Commons.
Jinnah as a Lawyer/ Advocate
When he returned home in 1896, his father’s business was in a loss. In such circumstances, Jinnah had to rely on himself, he started advocating in Bombay. He was the only Muslim lawyer in Bombay and he worked hard to become a successful lawyer. He was offered Bombay Presidency Magistrate’s post for consideration of Rs 1500 per month, but he declined the offer stating that he wanted to earn this amount every day. As it was a huge amount of that time but he earned so.
Jinnah’s Salary as Governor General of Pakistan
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was much affectionate and loyal to the Muslim Nation and Pakistan. After creation of Pakistan, he performed his duties as Governor General of Pakistan devotedly and just took Rs. 1/- only per month as salary. He never demanded an increase in his consideration.
Jinnah’s Confidence in himself
One of your fellow advocates of Bombay High Court stated about you were full of confidence in himself. Once a Judge warned Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and said:
“Mr. Jinnah, remember that you are not talking to a third class Magistrate, and in response, Jinnah said,” My Lord, let me warn you that you too not talking to a third class lawyer.”
Muslim Delegation’s meeting with Viceroy Lord Minto
In 1906, the delegation of Muslim leaders, headed by Sir Agha Khan, met the newly appointed Viceroy Lord Minto in India and assured their loyalty towards him. The delegation demanded that they should be protected from the Hindu majority in political reforms. On this, Jinnah wrote to the Editor of the Gujarati News that what is the right of the delegation to talk about the rights of Indian Muslims as they are not even elected representatives? When the Muslim leaders held a meeting in December 1906 at Dhaka to form All-India Muslim League for the interests of Muslims, Jinnah again opposed this. Initially, this party remained ineffective and could not do anything for cancellation of Partition of Bengal in the year 1911.
Jinnah and All India Muslim League
In December 1912, he addressed the All-India Muslim League’s annual meeting, while he was not members of it. Later on in 1913, he joined the All India Muslim League. When the Indian Home Rule League was established, he was elected its President of its Bombay branch.
Title of Ambassador of All India Muslim League
Initially, he was the supporter of the Hindu Muslim Alliance and because of his efforts, he attained the title of Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Alliance. Consequently, his efforts bore fruit and Congress and All India Muslim League started calling joint meetings. Both the parties called a joint meeting in 1915 at Bombay and 1916 at Lucknow in which Lukhnow pact was declared. At that time he was President of All India Muslim League. Through the agreement, both the parties demanded the British Government to bring constitutional reforms. It was his efforts that the Hindus accepted the demands of separate elections, one-third representation in the central legislation and the protection of minority rights.
Jinnah’s Marriage with Ratan Bai:
In 1918 he married Ratan Bai, a daughter of a wealthy Parsi person of Bombay and he faced opposition from her family. Afterward, she accepted Islam and named her as Mariam. In August 1919, his only daughter Dina Jinnah was born. In 1929 Jinnah separated from his wife and later she died. Now, sister of Jinnah, Fatima Jinnah took the responsibility of Dina Jinnah to bring her up. But Jinnah’s relationship with his daughter was broken when she intended to marry a Christian and Jinnah forbid her. She replied, “You also had married a non-Muslim woman.” He did never return back to Pakistan in her life. She just came to Pakistan to attend the funeral ceremony of Jinnah.
Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi:
Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi joined the Congress and he started non-cooperation movement. Formation of the Khilafat Movement and then its elimination were some of the reasons which disappointed Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He said that Gandhi is spreading political unrest.
Jinnah left Congress:
When Congress agreed to start a movement of Satyagraha and non-violence under Gandhi’s supervision, Jinnah left the Congress in Nagpur session in 1920 as he realized that Congress was not representing all the Indians. But it only prefers the interests of Hindus instead of other minorities, including Muslims.
Jinnah’s 14 Points in reply to Nehru Report
When the rights and interest of Muslims in India were ignored by the Nehru port in 1928, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah presented 14 points in 1929 in response to the Nehru Report which paved the way for the creation of Pakistan.
Round Table Conference
Jinnah along with other members of All India Muslim League participated in Round Table Conferences in 1930-32 in London.
Jinnah Left India and Settled in the United Kingdom
Then he left India and settled in Great Britain. Afterward Abdul Rahim Dard his close friend and Liaqat Ali Khan requested him to come back to India. So he returned back in 1934 and again struggled for the Hindu Muslim alliance.
Jinnah Used Term Nation for the Muslims
This was Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who used word ‘nation’ first time for the Muslims in the legislative assembly in 1935.
1937 Election and Hindu-Muslim Relationship
In 1937 elections were held under the Indian Act-1935. To participate in elections, Jinnah struggled for the Hindu Muslim alliance, and even he wanted both the parties to form the government in the provinces. But the election of 1937 proved to be a turning point for the relationship between the two parties i.e Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League. The Indian National Congress obtained a majority in six provinces in this election, while the All India Muslim League could not secure the majority. Resultantly, the Indian National Congress formed governments in all the provinces without the inclusion of All India Muslim League. The Hindus started oppressing the Muslims after election 1937 and form of their government.
Correspondence Between Jinnah and Allama Iqbal
The correspondence between Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal took place in 1936-37. Jinnah appreciated the thought and thinking of Allama Iqbal and described Iqbal’s imaginations and concepts in his speeches. Jinnah struggled for Iqbal’s dream to come true.
Jinnah’s strictness to his religion and culture
Historian Akbar Ahmed writes that Jinnah had abandoned the hope and efforts of reconciliation with the Congress because he again discovered his (Islamic) foundations; his sense of identity; culture and history; which were rapidly evolving in his life. After the 1937 elections, Quaid-e-Azam demanded that the power-sharing formulas should be implemented. He also demanded that being a President of All India Muslim League, he should be considered as the only spokesperson of the Muslim community of India.
Two Nation Theory
In 1939, Quaid-e-Azam emphasized that Muslims and Hindus are two different nations. He realized the Muslims that on account of our distinguished culture and civilization, language and literature, names and values, customs and traditions, rules and morals and history, even in all respect, we are a nation in accordance with the international laws.
Jinnah and Iqbal’s Dream
Now Jinnah dedicated his efforts to come true the dream of Allama Iqbal, which was expressed by Allama Iqbal in 1930 while Presiding in the Muslim League’s session, in which he demanded the separate homeland for the Muslim nation. This famous sermon of Iqbal is known as Sermon of Allahabad (Khutba Allahabad). After Iqbal’s demand for a separate homeland for the Muslim nation, in 1933, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali proposed the name of this Muslim state like Pakistan. Jinnah started realizing Muslims that only the Muslim League could guarantee the protection of their rights, and he also has drawn the attention of Muslims to the separate state.
Resolution of Pakistan
On 23rd March 1940, Quaid-e-Azam addressed a gathering in Minto Park (now Greater Iqbal Park) Lahore in which a famous resolution known as Resolution of Pakistan was passed. On this occasion, Jinnah emerged as a great leader of the Muslim Ummah. Resolution of Pakistan was called ridiculous by the Hindus and they opposed it. Jawahar Lal Nehru admitted that Quaid’s presented best proposals.
Jinnah Founded Dawn Newspaper
In the 1940s (on 26th October 1941), Quid-e-Azam founded a newspaper “Dawn” from Karachi which is now major English newspaper of Pakistan. Through this newspaper, the Muslim League’s message was spread.
Cripps Mission and Quit India Movement
After the failure of the Cripps Mission in August 1942, the Congress launched “Quit India” movement against the British Rule. The British arrested all the key leaders of the Congress including Mahatma Gandhi and kept them in captivity for two years. On this, Quaid started efforts to establish the control of All India Muslim League over the provinces.
In 1944, after the release of Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi – Jinnah met in Malabar and despite the meetings continued for two weeks both the leaders failed to reach the decision. Then Jinnah pressed hard that Pakistan should be created and recognized before leaving of British.
Liaqat Ali-Bhalla Bhai Desai Meeting
in 1945, with the approval of Quaid-e-Azam, Liaqat Ali Khan held the meeting with Bhalabhai Desai and agreed that both the two parties would jointly form an interim government after the war. It was also agreed that the members of the Viceroy Executive Council will equally be nominated by Muslim League and Congress. But when the Congress leader released from captivity, they broke the agreement and scolded Desai and asked him that why did he do this agreement?
Pakistan Movement and Election 1945 & 1946
The All India Muslim League announced that it would start the only movement of Pakistan. While addressing in Ahmad Abad, Quaid-e-Azam said that now Pakistan is a matter of life and death for us. In December 1945, Legislative Assembly elections were held and Muslim League secured every seat reserved for the Muslim. Later, in the 1946 Provincial Elections were held and the Muslim League secured 75% Muslim votes.
Jinnah and Mountbatten as a Viceroy
On 20th February 1947, British Prime Minister Mr. Attlee appointed Mountbatten as Viceroy of India and said that the British would transfer the power to the Indians by June 1948. Mountbatten assumed his charge on March 24, 1947. It was brought to his notice that it is not easy to convince Jinnah. After his efforts, Mountbatten could not convince Jinnah and being disappointed he said that Jinnah could not be convinced by arguments or by another way. He thinks about Pakistan only and he is firmed to his stance.
Jinnah’s apprehensions were that after British rule, Hindus would dominate Muslims of India. He demanded that Mountbatten should also divide the army before partition. Mountbatten wanted a combined army but Jinnah believed that independent state would have its own forces.
Jinnah Raised Slogan of Pakistan
On June 3, 1947, Mountbatten, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Baldev Singh, and Quaid-e-Azam officially announced partition on radio and Jinnah finally raised a slogan “Pakistan Zindabad” Pakistan’s survival that was not part of his script.
Jinnah Shifted to Karachi from Bombay
On July 4, 1947, Liaqat Ali Khan demanded Mountbatten that he should request King to appoint Quaid-e-Azam as the Governor General of Pakistan on which displeased Mountbatten because he wanted to become joint Governor General of both the two states after the independence. But Quaid-e-Azam felt concern over Mountbatten’s friendly relations with Nehru and he was of the view that his favors will be for India to for Pakistan. So he did not want to compromise on the post of Governor General. He sold his house in Bombay, purchased a new House in Karachi and then flew to Karachi on Mountbatten’s plane forever.
Jinnah’s Address to Constitutional Assembly of Pakistan
On 11th June 1947, while presiding over the constitutional assembly of Pakistan, he said: Now you are free, you are free to go to your temples, free to go to your mosques and to your worship places in Pakistan. Yes if you belong to any religion, belief or nation, it has nothing to do with the affairs of the state.
Christopher’s Statement about Mountbatten
Mountbatten caused a huge loss to Pakistan because of his friendly relations with Jawaharlal Nehru. He intentionally gave many regions to India from the part and share of Pakistan. Radcliff’s personal secretary Christopher later wrote that Mountbatten would be blamed and cursed for the migration of around 1.5 million people and massacre of almost five million people including women and children because of his favoritism towards Nehru. Despite fatal lung disease at the age of 70, Jinnah did the best for his nation.
Rehabilitation of Migrants
Jinnah paid frequent visits to Western Pakistan and monitored the rehabilitation of immigrants. Many Islamic states which were to be affiliated with Pakistan, were affiliated with India. The most important state of Kashmir, which had to be affiliated with Pakistan, was occupied by the Indian Army. The share of money of Pakistan’s part was also stopped, which was later given to Pakistan on the pressure of Mahatma Gandhi.
Creation of Pakistan
Despite the fierce opposition of the Britain Rule, Jawahar Lal Nehru, and Mahatma Gandhi, Pakistan came to existence on August 14, 1947.
First Governor General and Prime Minister of Pakistan
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of Pakistan and he took the oath on 15 August 1947. Liaqat Ali Khan, who was considered as the right hand of Quaid-e-Azam, became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam is also known as the “Father of the Nation”.
Constitution of Pakistan
Jinnah wanted to make Pakistan a welfare Islamic state, which can guarantee the protection of minority rights, and people of every religion are free in worship and traditions according to their religion. He said the constitution of Pakistan had been devised 1300 years ago by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be upon Him) and guidance will be taken from the Holy Prophet and the Quran.
Jinnah Condoned Gandhi’s Assassination
He condemned Gandhi’s assassination in 1948 in these words: “Gandhi was a great man born in the Hindu community.”
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s Death
Jinnah was suffering from a fatal disease like Tuberculosis (T.B) since 1930. He himself, Fatima Jinnah and some close friends were only aware of this disease. Jinnah kept this disease secret because this disease could have an effect on his political life and mission. When he was being shifted to the hospital in an ambulance, the ambulance broke down on the way and the great leader of the Pakistani nation had to wait for another ambulance for hours with some of his relatives and friends. He was lying in the ambulance and trucks and vehicles were passing by him, but nobody knew that their great leader and Governor General Pakistan is about to die in Ambulance on the road. Due to the severity of the disease, he was unable to sit therefore no car or vehicle driver was asked to shift him to the hospital. So, Jinnah died on September 11, 1948, and he was buried in Karachi. More than a million people participated in the funeral prayer of the great leader. The funeral prayer was also paid in Jakarta, Indonesia. His funeral ceremony was also observed officially in both the newly created states i.e Pakistan and India.
Indian and other Leaders on his death
On his demise, Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru was also depressed and he said that in the past we were displeased with him, but now I do not have any displeasure in him. Indian Governor General Raj Gopal Acharya postponed official activities on his death to pay tribute to him.
Jinnah’s Religious Affiliation
In 1970, after his death, Hussain Ali Ganj challenged in the High Court that he had become Sunni Muslim leaving Shia sect but the High Court rejected this claim in 1976. In 1970, a Pakistani court ruled that he was a Secular Muslims, neither Shia nor Sunni. Later on, in 1984 it was decided that Jinnah was now not Shia. Consequently, it was said that he was away from sectarianism and were only Muslims.
Leaders Opinion about Jinnah
Jinnah in the eye of H.M Seroy
Historian H. M. Seroy writes that Jinnah never wanted to divide India. The reason for this was the only Congress leader, who did not want to share in power with the Muslim League.
Jinnah In the eye of Jawahar Lal Nehru
Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru said about him: Jinnah is one of the most extraordinary figures in history.
Mountbatten’s Perception About Jinnah
After Jinnah’s death, Mountbatten said that if he knew that Jinnah’s illness is so severe, he would have waited for his death and never divides India. He further said: Jinnah was Ice Block, half a time of the meeting was consumed in melting him.
Jinnah in the eye of John Big Davis
John Big Davis said: Even without Mahatma Gandhi, India would gain freedom, and the communist revolution could prevail to Russia and China without Lenin and Mao Zedong, but in Pakistan never come into existence in 1947without Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Jinnah in the eye of Vijay Lakshmi Pandit
Vijay Lakshmi Pandit said: If a hundred Gandhi and two hundred Abu-ul- Kalam Azad were with the Muslim League and if only the Jinnah was with the Congress, India would never have been divided.
Mufti-e-Azam of Palestine’s Views
The Mufti-e-Azam of Palestine declared Jinnah’s death as a great loss for the Islamic world.
Jinnah Tower in India
In his memory, Jinnah Tower was built in Gunter Andhra Pradesh